Maven works around the following core concepts

Project Object Model (POM) is the XML representation of the project where all the dependencies and configuration details are stored. POM plays a major role in ensuring that all the project resource references are maintained.

Build Life Cycles, Phases, Goals – Maven build process is composed of many build life cycles. Each life cycle has one or more phases. Each phase has one or many associated goals.

Dependencies and Repositories – Dependencies are external JAR files required for the project to work. Maven downloads these dependencies into the local, central or remote repository.

Build Plugin – Adding plugins to the POM file allows us to add new custom actions to be done during the build process.

Build Profile – Projects can be built differently by using different build profiles.